Old Testament Used in the New Testament

(from Robert Thomas, Evangelical Hermeneutics)

1. Literal historical prophecy plus literal historical fulfillment. Example Isaiah 7:14 and Matthew 1:23; Micah 5:2 with Matthew 2:5-6, Messiah virgin born and born in Bethlehem.

2. Literal OT historical event or person and the NT author applies (ISPA) the OT wording to:

2.1. a new setting. Example Hosea 1:1 and Exodus 4:22-23 with Matthew 2:15, God’s son out of Egypt.

2.2. a similar situation. Example Jeremiah 31:15 with Matthew 2:17-18, Hebrew mothers weeping for their sons going into captivity and Jewish mothers weeping.

2.3. As a summary of OT idea. Example Matthew 2:23, Jesus was called a Nazarene.

Theory, Practice, and Application of Bible Study

Hermeneutics, Exegesis and Exposition, and Application

Tod Kennedy 2013

    1. Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament. There are two main uses.
    • First, the NT author accepts the OT author’s inspired grammatical-historical one meaning and uses his one meaning. This is the exact meaning or literal meaning and fulfillment. Accepts the truth of the OT author’s one meaning as written. Does not read the OT through the eyes of the NT. This is the exact fulfillment of the OT prophecy (Matthew 1.23 with Isaiah 7.14; Matthew 2.5-6 with Micah 5.2; Matthew 2.5-6 with Micah 5.2).
    • Second, the NT author accepts the OT author’s inspired grammatical-historical one meaning and then under inspiration uses the words with another meaning or fuller meaning or similar meaning. Does not change the original meaning of the OT passage. Gives an additional, similar, or different meaning to the new setting than the OT has in its original setting. Applies the OT wording to the new setting. Bible interpreters do not have this inspiration and so do not have the liberty to give additional meanings or uses to the OT text. Jeremiah 31.15 with Matthew 2.17-18—mothers crying is the similarity. Joel 2.28-32 with Acts 2.16—the outpouring of the Holy Spirit is the similarity. Hosea 11.1 with Matthew 2.15—God’s son left Egypt is the similarity; see Exodus 4.22-23. Isaiah 28.11 with 1 Corinthians 14.21-22—Assyrians speaking a foreign language to the Jews indicated to them that foreign taskmasters now ruled due to their disobedience. In Corinthians tongues (languages) indicated that new revelation and a new age (church) had come due to Israel’s rejection of their Messiah. Thomas calls this ISPA, inspired sensus plenior application. See Robert Thomas, Evangelical Hermeneutics, page 241, Kregel, 2002.