Psalms Summaries

Psalms Summaries of Those Studied October 10, 2014-September 5, 2018

Tod Kennedy


Psalm 1. The godly person contrasted with the ungodly person. How blessed is the man. This is a fitting start for the entire book. The godly believer’s spiritual joy, contentment, and production are based on delight in and meditation on Yahweh’s word in contrast to the spiritually worthless life of the ungodly person. This psalm contrasts the godly believer with the ungodly person. The godly believer delights in and meditates on Yahweh’s word and so makes the right choices about ideas, activities, and relationships. He reaps spiritual joy, contentment, and production because of his right relationship with Yahweh, while the ungodly person has a spiritually worthless life, though from the human viewpoint he may be temporarily successful and prosperous. In the end the godly will be saved and blessed while the ungodly will perish.


Two applications

1.    Do not become influenced by the wrong people.

2.    I should enjoy God’s word and think about what it says.


Psalm 2. Coronation of the Davidic king. Why are the nations in an uproar…Kiss the Son. God chose David and his heirs to rule from Zion (Jerusalem) as Israel’s kings. This Royal Psalm is about the coronation of the Davidic kings, including the perfect and final Davidic king, Messiah. This Royal Psalm was put in the sanctuary for use at every coronation. This Psalm ultimately refers God’s final king, King Messiah. The surrounding nations are rebelling at the coronation of the Davidic king in Jerusalem.  They plan and rage, but these pagan kings cannot stop Yahweh’s king. An anointed Davidic king ruling in Jerusalem limits the pagan kings’ power over Yahweh’s people. Yahweh laughs at them from heaven. He then pronounces that he has installed his Son King on Zion. His final king, Son King Messiah, will inherit the whole world and will completely break all rebels. The only hope for the rebels, and all people of the earth, is to take to heart the Psalmist’s words—worship Yahweh with reverence, joy, and submission.


Two applications

1.    I can be confident that God controls history. God’s King will eventually rule all nations and in God’s end of history he will judge the pagan leaders.

2.    I should reverence God’s Son and take refuge by faith in him.


Psalm 3. The LORD delivered David from Absalom’s Conspiracy. I lay down and slept, I awoke, for the LORD sustains me.  David was conspired against, rebelled against, and fled for his life before Absalom and his army. David knew Yahweh Elohim, both the doctrine about him and in personal relationship. He depended on Yahweh, who was his shield, his glory, and his sustainer. He prayed to, believed, and praised the LORD for the anticipated personal deliverance and national blessing. David’s sentiments preview Paul’s sentiments of almost eleven centuries later in 2 Timothy 1.12, “I know whom I have believed and I am convinced that he is able to guard what I have entrusted to him.” The main outline: Problem Psalm 3:1-2, Protection Psalm 3:3, Prayer Psalm 3:4, Peace Psalm 3:5-6, Promise Psalm 3:7-8.


Two applications

1.    Even though people say God will not help me, I know he is my shield.

2.    I can sleep when life is a turmoil because I know the LORD sustains me.



Psalm 4. David, though harassed and lied about, does not fret. In peace I will both lie down and sleep. This Psalm by David was for the choir director, probably to be used in congregational worship. It Psalm may be related to Psalm 3. As often happened in David’s life, he is harassed and attacked by others who seek to dishonor and overthrow him. David appeals to God who has helped him in the past, to once again show grace and answer his prayer. He then counsels those who challenge his honor, discredit him, and lie about him to think about what they are doing and stop the attack. They cannot change the LORD’s choice. He is confident that the LORD set him apart for his service and so will answer his prayer.  David further tells them to think through their activity and return to the LORD through appropriate sacrifices and faith. Though many question David as the LORD’s leader, David asks that the LORD show his favor to him and his people. In faith he goes on to say the LORD has made him glad even more so than in prosperous times, and he will sleep peacefully because the LORD protects him.


Two applications

1.    I can sleep peacefully, even in turmoil, because the LORD makes me safe.

2.    I ought to experience inner joy and gladness from the LORD, greater than from any material prosperity.


Psalm 5. David confidently cries for help. Give ear to my words, O LORD.  David calls out to Yahweh for help from unknown adversaries who attack him physically and verbally. David knows that God is completely separate from wickedness, evil, those who boast, do iniquity, lie, do violence, and deceive people—characteristics of his own foes. David also realizes that Yahweh’s lovingkindness permits him to enter and worship in the LORD’s house. So, David asks Yahweh to guide him in Yahweh’s path. In contrast, the speech of the wicked is destructive, and they rebel against God. David asks God to judge them and allow them to destroy themselves. David sums up by asking that Yahweh give joy, shelter, and great happiness to those who take refuge in Him. No matter how terrible the enemy, Yahweh blesses the righteous man and surrounds him as with a shield. So prayer for help, believing watchfulness, fellowship with Yahweh, reverence, prayer for God’s guidance in the righteous and right life, taking refuge in Yahweh, and loving Him result in Yahweh’s blessing and favor.


Two applications

1.    If I am unjustly attacked, I will pray to LORD God (Yahweh Elohim) and wait for his answer. This psalm can be a pattern for my prayer when I am unjustly attacked.

2.    I will Pray that Yahweh Elohim will lead me in his right and righteous life path.


Psalm 6. David pleads with Yahweh to stop disciplining him. O LORD, do not rebuke me in your anger. David is physically and emotionally worn out. He seems to be in pain, discouraged, and unable to sleep. He is fearful for his life. He asks Yahweh how long this will go on. The reason is that Yahweh has used David’s enemies to discipline him, for what we are not told. He asks Yahweh to show grace and healing to him instead of anger and wrath. David gives two reasons why Yahweh should help him: because of Yahweh’s lovingkindness, and because dead men do not praise Yahweh. In the end Yahweh saw David’s weeping and heard his prayers. The discipline is over. The enemies will give up—ashamed and dismayed.


Two applications

1.    Divine discipline can be can affect me physically, mentally, and emotionally. If I sense discipline, then I should make a quick prayerful search for the reason and correct the reason.

2.    I need to recover from God’s discipline. If I do not know the reason, then I still appeal to Yahweh’s lovingkindness-mercy. David appealed directly to Yahweh.


Psalm 7. David pursued, prays, listens, and trusts the LORD. Vindicate me, O LORD, according to my righteousness. David takes refuge in Yahweh his God because he finds himself pursued and harassed by violent men who want to tear him apart like a lion would. He knows he is innocent of wrong, so much so that if he is guilty, let the enemy destroy him. He then asks Yahweh to rise up and judge the adversaries, and at the same time vindicate him. He knows that God is righteous, that he examines the thoughts, that he is a shield, a deliverer, and judge. If a person will not repent God will judge him, and not only that, the unrepentant will judge himself by consequences of his bad ideas and actions. At the end, David shows his confidence in Yahweh by saying that he will give thanks and praise to Yahweh most high.


Two applications

1.    If I am righteous and still falsely attacked, the LORD is my refuge, protector, and deliverer. So, I need to go to him, and to trust him to vindicate me.

2.    I should thank the LORD for his righteous vindication of me.


Psalm 8. The majestic LORD delegated earth dominion to mankind. What is man?… You crown him. The LORD shows his majesty and power in the heavens, in humanity, and in his plan for mankind to rule his earth creation. The majestic LORD has shown his splendor in the heavens and has shown his strength even through the words of children which confound the LORD’s enemies (Psalm 8.1-2). When the psalmist thinks about the greatness of the Lord he marvels about the insignificance of man whom the LORD created in his own image and gave ruling dominion over all the earth (Psalm 8.3-8). Truly the LORD is majestic in all the earth (Psalm 8.9).


Two applications

1.    I ought to give the LORD my honest praise because he is the majestic and powerful creator and as such he deserves universal praise, especially by me as a believer.

2.    I, as a human, marvel that God has created me and all people, and given us rule over the earth.


Psalm 9. David will thank, tell about, exult, and sing praise to Yahweh most high God, who always judges righteously—He will judge the world in righteousness—because the LORD completely defeated his enemies and defended his cause (Psalm 9.1-6). The LORD rules forever. Since he rules all, he will judge the world, be a stronghold for the oppressed, those who know his name will trust him, and he does not forsake those who seek him (Psalm 9.7-10). The psalmist continues with the call to praise Yahweh and recount his deeds while also requesting grace for himself, so he may praise Yahweh in Zion (Psalm 9.11-14). The psalmist confidently proclaims that the nations do reap the consequences of their own evil and that the LORD directly judges them—the wicked will die, while Yahweh will remember the needy and afflicted. He concludes with a call to Yahweh to judge the nations, make them fear Yahweh, and to know they are mere men (Psalm 9.15-20).


Two applications

1.    I will remember to thank the LORD, tell others of his blessings, rejoice in him, and praise him.

2.    No matter what happens, God is the judge over all creation, and I can trust him to judge righteously.


Psalm 13. A question, a prayer, then trust and rejoicing. How long, O LORD?  What we believe and apply about our LORD God is more important than how we feel. Even though one feels forsaken or ignored by the LORD God, one can pray, trust in God’s loyal gracious love and deliverance, and rejoice.  David feels abandoned and neglected. He asks the LORD four questions: how long will the LORD forget him, how long will the LORD hide, how long must David bear this heartfelt sorrow, and how long will David’s enemy gloat over him (Psalm 13.1-2)? David then prays that God will answer by both encouraging him and delivering him. Otherwise, David’s enemies will claim victory and rejoice at David’s defeat (Psalm 13.3-4). After David prays and before God delivers him, David trusts in God’s lovingkindness. This trust results in rejoicing and praise to the LORD because of confidence that God will deliver and bless. (Psalm 13.5-6).


Two applications

1.    I need to always remember that The LORD does not forget about me.

2.    I can pray and confidently believe that the LORD is my source for lovingkindness, deliverance, blessing, and the only answer to discouragement.


Psalm 14. Fools deny God while the righteous anticipate LORD Yahweh’s deliverance. The fool has said in his heart, “there is no God.”  The fool is morally and intellectually an atheist because he denies that God matters and so he thinks that he is master over his life. This changes his values. Right and wrong can become confused. Society suffers. His worldview affects everything in his life and overflows to individuals and the culture. His life does not please God. Fools arrogantly do not want to know if God exists. The fool shows his denial of God by his own sin and his attack on God’s people. The LORD looks at the fools and judges them as corrupt. In contrast, the righteous, even though the fools oppress them, have LORD Yahweh as their refuge and wait for the LORD to deliver, restore, and bring joy to Israel.

Two applications

1.    I should never let the fool, who is a practical atheist, intimidate me. The LORD will judge them.

2.    I want to live righteously because God is with the righteous person, and the LORD is my refuge.


Psalm 15. Qualifications for Fellowship and Worship. Who may abide in your tent?  To have fellowship with God and worship him one must live blamelessly, do righteous acts, and speak honestly. David asks who is qualified to have access to the LORD and spend time as a guest or as a temporary resident in the tabernacle at Zion. He answers that the person who lives a life of integrity, does righteous deeds, and speaks truthfully may do so. David then expands his statement with seven more character traits.  He concludes that this kind of person will also have spiritual stability, spiritual security, and confidence from the LORD. This psalm reminds people what is required to worship God. Proverbs 6.16-19, Matthew 5.1-16, Galatians 5.13-26, Ephesians 5.1-21, and Philippians 4.8-9 are a few of the many passages that include lists of sins and good spiritual life habits. The context may have reference to Israel gathering for prayer, sacrifices, and festivals.


Two applications

1.    Do I want to have fellowship with God and serve him? If so my thoughts, words, and actions need to be right.

2.    I need to guard against becoming slowly entangled with the ungodly culture and worldview.


Psalm 16. Protection and Blessings in Life and Death. Preserve me for I take refuge in you. David so focuses his life on the LORD that he experiences great confidence and joy in his present life, and is sure that the LORD will give pleasures after death—forever. David, under some kind of attack, asks God to protect him. He then immediately confesses his loyalty to and dependence on the LORD and acknowledges that his good is always from the LORD’S presence and ability. While under pressure he delights in the righteous Israelites and avoids those who left the LORD. The LORD is his lot in life. This brings blessings and purpose to him. David blesses the LORD for his counsel and meditates on the LORD who is his authority and strength. This keeps him faithful and strong. He rejoices because he knows he will not die then. The LORD will show him how to live and David will experience full joy both in the present life and his joy will continue after he dies.


Two applications

1.    I want to continually focus my life on the LORD (love for the LORD and occupation with him) because he is my only refuge, good, portion, counsel, and security.

2.    Do I really take refuge in the LORD by trusting him in all situations?

Psalm 19. Creation and God’s word powerfully proclaim Yahweh’s glory, works, and instructions and this prompts David to pray. The heavens are telling of the glory.  David, in this Psalm, proclaims that creation powerfully reveals God’s glory and works (Psalm 19:1-6). He further proclaims that Yahweh’s word powerfully reveals Yahweh’s provisions, instructions, warnings, and blessings, and is desirable and enjoyable (Psalm 19:7-11.) These revelations prompt David to pray that Yahweh will alert David to sin, keep him from sin, and guide his speech and thoughts so they please Yahweh (Psalm 19:12-14). When we take these truths into our lives the result should be the same.

Two applications

1.    How do I think about God when I view the heavens and read the Old Testament?

2.    Psalm 19.14 should be my daily prayer because I recognize God’s majesty in creation and through his written revelation?


Psalm 20. Pray with confidence in the LORD. Some boast in chariots and some in horses. Both the congregation and King David confidently pray that Yahweh, the God of Jacob, will give the King victory in the upcoming battle, and they all confidently expect victory because chariots and horses cannot succeed against the name of Yahweh. This psalm was likely sung by Israel and King David before he led his army into battle against strong armies that depended on horses and chariots. It is a liturgical song with part sung by the assembled Israelites and part sung by the king. In it they express confidence in the name of Yahweh. The congregation and even David had gathered before the LORD, probably in the sanctuary of that day. He had offered the meal offerings and the burnt offering. The congregation prayed. David prayed. Then the congregation concluded with the final confident plea to the LORD. For confident prayer one must pray to the one personal and capable God. This was true for King David and the gathered Israelites. They knew to whom they prayed. This is true for us now. God is the same yesterday, today, and tomorrow. We know to whom we pray.


Two applications

1.    I ought to turn to the LORD in believing prayer whenever I encounter spiritual and physical battles.

2.    When situations get really bad, I need to remember in faith the name of the LORD my God instead of thinking that people or arms will deliver me, my family and friends, and my nation.


Psalm 22. Undeserved Suffering, Prayer, Deliverance, Praise. My God, My God, why have you forsaken me? Urgent prayer during undeserved attack and suffering; the LORD delivers; praise the LORD. Psalm 22 is about David. David is suffering at the hands of his enemies—suffering to the point of almost dying. He does not yet experience God’s deliverance, and he continues to pray. God answered his prayer. David was delivered from death and he goes on living. Because of God’s deliverance, David praised God and encouraged others to praise God and trust God. This psalm includes statements that go beyond David—hyperbole about David that find expression in the greater David, Messiah. The greater David, Jesus Messiah, suffered horribly and was delivered out of death by his resurrection.

Two applications

1.    No matter how much people want to destroy me and how bleak my survival is I pray and trust the LORD, since ultimately he is my only help.

2.    When the LORD delivers me, I must be sure to thank him and tells others of his great deliverance.


Psalm 23. The LORD shepherds his people. The LORD is my shepherd. This Psalm emphasizes the spiritual life, so as the Psalm develops David is assured that the LORD will provide David with all spiritual necessities. See Psalm 95.7.  These include God’s word, spiritual cleansing and refreshment, restoration of attitude and of fellowship, guidance onto right paths, lack of fear even in the most deadly circumstances, comfort, protection, much blessing even though enemies press him, and God’s goodness and loyal love.  David concluded that he wanted to spend the rest of his life in fellowship with the LORD which begins in the tabernacle and continues wherever David might be.

Two applications

1.    Since the LORD is my shepherd, how does that affect my thinking, especially is dark and deadly times?

2.    Do I want to be like David and fellowship with the LORD throughout every day?


Psalm 24. Who May worship the LORD in His holy place? The earth is the LORD’S and all it contains. The exact historical situation is unknown. The evidence within the Psalm indicates that this is a victory liturgy sung or chanted by Israel as they carried the Ark of the Covenant to the sanctuary of the LORD after a military victory. David asks who is qualified to worship The LORD in His holy sanctuary, probably at Jerusalem. The LORD created the earth and everything that lives in it. He is the creator, holy, the king of glory, the LORD of hosts. In order to enter God’s presence, one must be perfect—righteous in acts, thoughts, and words. The LORD will bless those who qualify to enter into the sanctuary. With people ready to enter the sanctuary, the plea is made that the ancient gates will open so the LORD of hosts may enter—probably a reference to the Ark being brought to the sanctuary after a battle.

Two applications

1.    I should have great confidence in the LORD because he owns all creation and I can have fellowship with him.

2.    Do I want to have fellowship with the LORD in “his holy place” and am I qualified?


Psalm 26. Vindicate me and be gracious to me, or blessing, not judgment. Vindicate me, O LORD…, Examine me…, Test my mind and heart.  Apparently, David is under some kind of attack. He asks Yahweh to declare him righteous and deliver him because of his life and his faith, and asks Yahweh to examine him—his conscience and his volition. He has kept Yahweh’s lovingkindness before him and has walked in Yahweh’s truth.  He has avoided sin and sinners. He will fellowship with Yahweh with clean hands, will participate in the sanctuary ritual, and will proclaim Yahweh’s works. Furthermore, David loves the sanctuary where he has safety and where Yahweh’s glory meets him, and asks that Yahweh will not judge him with sinners. David closes with a statement of his loyalty, his humble need for grace, his commitment to faith in Yahweh, and his assurance of Yahweh’s acceptance.

Two applications

1.    I want Yahweh to examine me and my life and I want him to pass me as one who lives right and trusts him without wavering.

2.    I want to enjoy fellowship with the LORD and be aware of his glory and tell about his works.


Psalm 27. David prays and waits on Yahweh for fellowship and protection. The Lord is my light and my salvation. While under attack, David expresses his confidence in Yahweh as his light, his salvation, and his defense. David’s one main request to Yahweh is that he may fellowship with Yahweh person to person in the sanctuary, but to do this Yahweh must defend him from the evildoers. David continues by saying that he wants to seek Yahweh’s face, and asking Yahweh not to abandon him, but instead to protect him, to teach him his ways and guide him, and to deliver him from those who want to kill him. He concludes with an expression of confidence in Yahweh and a challenge for faith—to wait for Yahweh, be strong and courageous, yes, to wait for Yahweh.

Two applications

1.    I really do want to experience at all times the LORD as my light (happiness), salvation (deliverance in troubled times), and refuge (the one I turn to and trust). I therefore want to know him better and trust him more.

2.    My desire is to know how the LORD wants me to live and to follow that path, and as I do I want to wait for his guidance and have courage from him no matter what.


Psalm 28. David calls on Yahweh and blesses Yahweh. To you O LORD, I call; My rock. David cries out to Yahweh, his rock, to listen and answer his prayer. David prays that Yahweh will judge and break the wicked because they practice evil and disregard Yahweh’s works. He asks that Yahweh not allow him to be caught up in the net of judgment and share by association the fate of the wicked. David then breaks into blessing Yahweh because He has heard his petition, and David proclaims that Yahweh is his strength and shield. He trusts Yahweh. David thanks Yahweh with song. Not only is Yahweh David’s strength and shield, Yahweh is also Israel’s strength and the saving defense of His anointed king. David concludes with the request that Yahweh deliver, bless, shepherd, and carry them through everything, always.


Two applications

1.    I want the LORD to be my rock, my strength, and my shield. So, I will trust him.

2.    When I experience his answer to prayer, I will bless (recognize his good to me) and praise him.


Psalm 66. A Thanksgiving Psalm. Shout joyfully to God, all the earth. The psalmist, apparently recalling a special deliverance by God, 1. calls all the people on earth to praise God (Psalm 66.1-4). 2. He then asks the people to join him and see the awesome deeds God—who rules by might and keeps watch on nations—has done when he delivered Israel during the exodus (Psalm 66.5-7). 3. The psalmist then calls the people to bless and praise God who kept Israel as a nation through all the discipline and testing (Psalm 66.8-12). 4. He also will praise God with his lips and burnt offerings (Psalm 66.13-15). 5. The psalmist concludes by calling those who fear God to listen as he proclaims that God has answered his prayer and continued his lovingkindness to him (Psalm 66.16-20). Note the imperatives:  shout, Psalm 66.1; sing and make, Psalm 66.2; say, Psalm 66.3; come and see, Psalm 66.5; bless, Psalm 66.8; sound, Psalm 66.8; come and hear, Psalm 66.16.


Two applications

1.    I want to praise God for his specific awesome deeds in my life and in those around me.

2.    I want to tell other people what God has done for me.


Psalm 84. Joy of Fellowship with the LORD at the sanctuary. For a day in your courts. The psalmist wrote this psalm, which was sung by the sons of Korah, a musical group, to express the desire and joy of worshipping in the house of the Lord, called your dwelling places (Psalm 84.1), the courts of the LORD (Psalm 84.2), your altars (Psalm 84.3), in your house (Psalm 84.4), in Zion (Psalm 84.7), your courts (Psalm 84.10), and threshold of the house (Psalm 84.10). It is unclear if this is pre-exilic or exilic, but regardless, the pilgrim worshippers of Yahweh are traveling to Zion so they may fellowship with Yahweh in his house. This would seem, then, to be pre-exilic. This privilege is the greatest of all blessings, for Yahweh is a sun and shield, gives grace and glory, provides for the upright (Psalm 84.11), and the person who trust in him is blessed (Psalm 84.12). Within this he prays for God to bless his anointed king, (Psalm 84.9), the guardian and leader of the nation, though the king is not named. As the pilgrims anticipate their time in Zion, they confess that they would rather be there than anywhere else, no matter what the world with all its pleasures offered them. Yahweh of Hosts is the source of life and protection, grace and glory, every good thing, and those who trust him are happy and blest. Note the repetition of blessed in Psalm 84.4,5,12, and of LORD of Hosts in Psalm 84.1,3,8,12.


Two applications

1.    I ought to look forward to and enjoy fellowship with God in the place he meets is people (the sanctuary in the OT and the church or any group gathering in the church age).

2.    I should trust in the LORD at all times. When I do I have inner happiness.


Psalm 85. Revive us again—Recall, Pray, Listen. Restore us…revive us again. The psalm may be around the time of Ezra and Nehemiah when Israel did not take God seriously and her enemies tormented her. They are back in their land but face spiritual and physical failure and oppression. This psalm is about national revival, both physical and spiritual. The psalmist recalls God’s past deliverance of Israel and now asks God to again restore the nation, stop his anger, revive them again so they may praise him show. They ask that he will show his lovingkindness, and grant deliverance. They will listen for God’s answer and anticipate that the LORD will do what is good.


Two applications

1.    I will recall God’s answers to prayer, his forgiveness, and his times of spiritual revival in my life.

2.    I will pray for God to revive me, my family, my church, and believers in my country and the world, and show his lovingkindness and deliverance.


Psalm 90. God is eternal while man is temporal and sinful, so man should focus his life on the LORD—Yahweh—and pray for Yahweh’s blessings in life. So teach us to number our days. This was most likely written during the exodus (1445-1405 BC) while Israel was experiencing rebellious and therefore unhappy times in the Sinai desert, and probably near the end of Moses’ life. Moses, the man of God, declares that the everlasting Lord, God, has always been the home or dwelling place—place of security—for Israel and mankind because he is eternal, the creator, the master, the one who sets the rules, the one who judges and blesses, and is not bound by time, while man is bound by time and time quickly fades away. Man also sins and clings to the wrong perspective and values. Because of this repeated sin God is angry. He judges sin, and though man may live seventy or eighty years, the time goes fast and is full of labor and sorrow. Moses then pleads that God will instruct them to number their days and realize how few each person has so that they use them wisely. He also asks Yahweh to return, to pity them, to satisfy them with his lovingkindness, to make them glad, to show them his work and majesty, and concludes with the appeal that Adonay Elohim’s favor will be upon them and that he will confirm and establish their work.

Two applications

1.    I should remind myself often the character and works of God; he is above time yet enters into the world’s time to judge and to bless.

2.    Mankind’s days are short, so I pray that God will teach me to number my days and wisely use them for him, and we will then be glad and rejoice all our life.


Psalm 91. Security for the one who trusts, loves, and knows Yahweh. He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High. The psalmist (LXX names David) testifies that he (the I section) takes shelter in the Most High, and will live under the protection of the Almighty, identified as Yahweh (LORD) and God. He is the psalmist’s refuge and fortress whom he trusts (Psalm 91.1-2). The writer then addresses others (the you section) proclaiming that Yahweh delivers from personal traps set for you and from disease. His faithfulness is your shield. You need not fear attacks that come at night or in the day, need not fear disease, or even death that is all around you. You will understand that the destruction is retribution on the wicked, and it will not harm you because the LORD is your refuge and dwelling place (Psalm 91.5-10). The LORD will command his angels to guard you, and in fact you will come through as victors (Psalm 91.11-13 The LORD speaks the last section. He clearly promises that the person who loves him and knows him well has the privilege of deliverance, security, prayer, answered prayer, encouragement, rescue, honor, life, and will experience the LORD’S deliverance (Psalm 91.14-16).

Two applications

1.    Instead of becoming fearful and apprehensive about people and things I want to trust myself to the LORD who is almighty, my refuge, my fortress, my shield, and my protective wall.

2.    My response to the LORD is to love him, know him, call on him, and trust him.


Psalm 95. Sing, Worship, Listen to, and Believe God. We are the people of his pasture and the sheep of his hand. Israel is to joyfully worship him because he is Creator, God, and Shepherd. At the same time the Israelites are warned against hardening their hearts in unbelief and disobedience like the Exodus generation did at Meribah (Rephidim) and Massah (Kadesh). They are to joyfully sing, shout, come before the LORD God with thanksgiving and psalms because he is the only great God and King, creator and owner of his creation; and to worship, bow down, and kneel before our LORD, our Maker, our God, and our shepherd because we are his people and his sheep; and we are to listen to and believe God, so not to imitate the Exodus generation who hardened their hearts against God by disbelieving him and therefore failed to enter the rest he provided for them. And by application all God’s people, should respond to the LORD God with song, worship, attention, and faith.

Two applications

1.    I want to be glad that I am one of God’s sheep and joyfully express this to him each day.

2.    I will make choices to by faith respond to God, and to reject the unbelief and rebellion of the Exodus generation.



Psalm 98. Sing to the LORD. O sing to the LORD a new song. Yahweh has done many great deeds throughout history, and though the specific historical background for this psalm is unknown, his people ought to recognize those great acts and joyfully praise him for doing them—to sing a new song to Yahweh. All creation—the nations, Israel, all people, and even the sea and rivers and mountains—everything ought to rejoice because Yahweh is coming back to earth and will judge creation righteously and justly. This praise in song is based in Yahweh’s revelation to Israel about himself and his promises and his actions. The response in song that glorifies Yahweh is rooted, founded, based in, and controlled by Yahweh’s revelation to Israel and mankind.


Two applications

1.    My continual response to the LORD should be joyful singing and praise because he has done wonderful things—victory, revealed his deliverance, revealed his righteousness, remembered his lovingkindness and faithfulness to Israel, let all people see his salvation.

2.    No matter how discouraged I get with the world’s rejection of God, I remember that he is great and is coming to judge the world righteously, so I can always praise him.


Psalm 117. All people praise Yahweh. Praise the LORD all nations. In this descriptive praise psalm the psalmist calls all people, Israel and the nations, to praise Yahweh because his lovingkindness is so great toward all and his faithfulness-truth never stops. This psalm may be a doxology to Psalms 111-116.

Two applications

1.    I will praise the LORD.

2.    I praise the LORD because of his great lovingkindness to me, and because of his truth and faithfulness which goes on forever.


Psalm 119. The value of God’s word, the Bible. According to your word. Psalm 119 is an acrostic psalm which means that each line in each section begins with a letter of the alphabet in order from aleph (the first Hebrew letter) to tav (the last Hebrew letter). Yahweh is the word most often used in this Psalm to refer to God. Yahweh is God’s personal name. It is translated LORD in contrast to adonay which is translated Lord. It is used 5321 times in the Hebrew Bible. Yahweh’s word is the same as God’s word or the word of God. The unknown psalmist finds himself alone, persecuted, and discouraged. He prays to Yahweh and meditates on Yahweh’s word which is unerring, dependable, wise, preventative, reviving, and corrective. It is the source of delight, and the light that guides us on the path of life. Our response to this Psalm should also be prayer, meditation on Yahweh’s word, and love for Yahweh. This psalm will foster love for His word, meditation on His word, memorizing His word, delighting in His word, obeying His word, and allowing His word to shape, order, and determine our thinking, speaking, and acting. The psalmist refers to Scripture in every verse except 84, 121, and 122. The psalmist uses nine different Hebrew words for Yahweh God’s word, Scripture. He calls Yahweh’s word law, testimony, precepts, statutes, commandments, judgments, word, sayings, and ordinances. Psalm 119 is the longest chapter in the Bible—176 verses.

Two applications

1.    The Bible is God’s word to me, so I pray that I will never let it sit unopened, but always read and meditate on it.

2.    I want the word of God to instructs, challenge, correct, and encourage me.


Psalm 136. Thank Yahweh for who He is and what He does because of His lovingkindness. For his lovingkindness is everlasting. The Psalmist calls the people to thank LORD (Yahweh) God (Elohim) Lord (adonay) for Who he is, and for what he has done through creation, redemption, provision, and rescue and care; and for what He is doing in the world and in the lives of his people. The repeated refrain “For His lovingkindness is everlasting” highlights Yahweh’s loving faithfulness to his people.

Two applications

1.    I want to habitually thank the LORD God, Yahweh Elohim, for who he is—he is good and lovingkindness.

2.    I want to habitually thank the LORD God, Yahweh Elohim, for all that he has done in the past and what he is doing now.


Psalm 142. David, trapped by Saul’s troops, is overwhelmed by a sense of no one to turn to. When my spirit was overwhelmed within me. According to the superscription he is hiding in a cave—either in Adullam (1 Samuel 22.1) or En Gedi (1 Samuel 24.1-21). The Adullam incident is more dangerous and the more probable historical situation. In this psalm David first says he will cry aloud, make supplication, pour out his complaint, and declare his trouble to Yahweh, not to people (Psalm 142.1-2). He then expresses his condition—he is overwhelmed, trapped, and no cares about him (Psalm 142.3-4). David confidently concludes by specifically asking Yahweh, who is his refuge and portion (the only one of value he has), to listen, deliver, and free him so that he may thank Yahweh and be a witness to Yahweh’s great goodness to him (Psalm 142.5-7).

Two applications

1.    When I am overwhelmed by life, I need to know what David knew and do what he did.

2.    There are three knowledge peaks that I need to master: 1, the LORD knows where I am and what I am doing; 2, the Lord is my safe place; 3, The LORD my portion or all that is of value to me.


Psalm 143. David first appeals to Yahweh’s faithfulness, righteousness, and lovingkindness, then reflects on Yahweh’s great works, moves to requests for instruction and fellowship, and ends with the plea to destroy his servant David’s enemies.  Let me hear your lovingkindness in the morning. David—pursued, persecuted, crushed, and overwhelmed by the enemy—prays to the LORD (Yahweh) to deliver him. Because David knows that the LORD is faithful and righteous he appeals to him, though he does not deserve God’s help because no man is righteous (Psalm 143.1-4). David remembers, meditates, and muses on what the LORD has done in distant and current history and that gives him confidence to cry out for help (Psalm 143.5-6). He asks that Yahweh will quickly answer. If the LORD turns away from him and does not answer he will be like a dead man and no good for anything. David asks to hear of Yahweh’s lovingkindness, to know his guidance, and to experience his deliverance. He has nowhere else to turn; he trusts in and takes refuge in Yahweh (Psalm 143.7-9). David then asks: God, teach me to do Your will; let Your Holy Spirit lead me; Yahweh revive me. Finally, he appeals to Yahweh’s righteousness and lovingkindness: deliver my soul, destroy my enemies, for I am your servant (Psalm 143.10-12). Of course, the complete deliverance will be when Jesus Christ returns for his church, comes to rule on earth, and then the new heavens and new earth.

Two applications

1.    I need to remember the LORD’S attributes, the LORD’S great accomplishments, and call out to the LORD for help.

2.    The LORD is committed to us since we are believers in him, his word, and his works.


Psalm 146. Praise Yahweh, do not trust princes. Do not trust in princes. You all and I praise Yahweh while we are alive. Do not trust influential people because they die and their thoughts die with them. In contrast, the person who trusts the God of Jacob, Yahweh Elohim, is happy because Yahweh, is the creator, protector, and provider. He created the heaven, the earth, the seas, and all creatures. He is faithful, performs justice, gives food, frees prisoners, gives sight, encourages the discouraged, loves the righteous, protects strangers, supports the fatherless and widows, and thwarts the way of the wicked. Yahweh, the God of Zion, your God, will reign forever, so praise Yahweh.

Two applications

1.    I will genuinely praise the LORD throughout my life. He is eternal and people are temporal.

2.    I want to trust the LORD God with everything in my life. He is creator and so he is able, and he is always faithful to himself and his word. Those who trust him are blessed, receive help, and have hope. If I distrust him, I am being foolish.



Psalms, General Lessons for us


1.    The Psalms reveal to us who the LORD God is, what he has done and what he is doing and what he will do, the enemies believers face, and what our response to him ought to be.

2.    The Psalms provide instruction, challenge, correction, and encouragement to believers as they in OT times and we in the church live in a world that rejects and actively opposes the biblical faith.

3.    God is the creator, sustainer, and redeemer. He alone is unique. We ought to listen to God, believe him, praise him, worship him, and serve him. Psalm 115

4.    God is trustworthy and faithful to his word and to his people. We ought to trust him and obey him. Psalm 91

5.    God’s word is the truth. It is the ultimate source of knowledge about God, man, sin, salvation, righteousness, blessing, the future—about whatever is important. We ought to study it, meditate in it, and delight in it. Psalm 119

6.    The Psalms demonstrate that God provides spiritual protection, provision, and well being for his people, even in the face of opposition, and especially for those who trust him and follow him. Psalm 23

7.    Mankind sins. Sin has consequences—directly from God or simply from bad choices—and God forgives. God disciplines his people to correct and to bless them, and to honor himself. God also freely forgives sin. The Psalms give case histories of sin, consequences of sin, confession of sin, and forgiveness. We ought to listen to the Psalms and experience the forgiveness, blessing, comfort, refreshment. Psalm 51, Psalm 32

8.    God has created, chosen, blessed, and covenanted with Israel that they are his people and they have a wonderful future through the Messiah. God will bless and rule the world through Israel. We ought to bless Israel and pray for her restoration. Psalm 78

9.    The world is at war with God and with God’s people, Israel and the Church. Satan leads his forces against God, Israel, Jesus Christ, and the Church. The angelic conflict plays out through God’s will verses man’s will, sin verses righteousness, grace verses works, Israel verses anti-Semitism, God’s Word and the biblical worldview verses human viewpoint or the non-biblical worldview. The Psalms clearly depict this constant warfare with the pitfalls, defeats, sources of strength and encouragement, and the short term and long terms victories. We ought to be informed, prepared, and fight with God’s power and God’s weapons. Psalm 2

10. The psalmist desires and seeks Fellowship with God. We find this scattered throughout the Psalms. It is especially noted when sin has interrupted fellowship with God, when adversity has struck and the psalmist longs for God’s fellowship or presence, and when the psalmist is especially aware of God’s greatness. We also ought to desire close fellowship with God every day of our lives—to live as friends of God. Psalm 42.

11. The Psalms give a pattern for prayer for spiritual revival of God’s people in every age. Psalm 85.

12. The Psalms emphasize genuine worship which combines doctrine, conscious thought, and emotion. Psalm 95.

13. Suggested reading: JJ Stewart Perowne, Psalms, Zondervan, 1878, p 38-40; Derek Kidner, Psalms 1-72, IVP, 1973, p18; Allen Ross, A Commentary on the Psalms, Kregel, 2011, Vol 1, p 25-39.

Hebrew Parallelism

1.    Synonymous parallelism. The two consecutive lines are very close in thought or terms. Examples include Psalm 1:2; 3:1; 7:17; 22:18; 105:23.

2.    Antithetical parallelism. The two consecutive lines contrast thought. Examples include Psalm 1:6; 90:6.

3.    Emblematic parallelism. One line is a truth and the other line pictures the truth or gives an emblem clarifying the truth. Examples include Psalm 1:3; 23:1; 42:1; 103:13.

4.    Synthetic parallelism. Here the second line develops or expands the first line. Examples include Psalm 1.1; 95:3

5.    Climactic parallelism. The first line makes a statement and the second line repeats the statement and completes the thought. Psalm 29:1; 96:7 are examples.

6.    Alphabetic or acrostic Psalms. In these psalms each line begins with a letter of the alphabet in order from aleph (the first Hebrew letter) to tav (the last Hebrew letter). Psalm 119 has each section divided according to letter. For example, Psalm 119:1-8 is the aleph section and each line begins with aleph. There are 22 sections corresponding to the 22 letters (sin and shin count as the same letter, so 22 sections, not 23) of the Hebrew alphabet. This alphabetic structure aids in memory. The acrostic psalms are Psalm 9-10 (taken together), Psalm 25; 34; 37; 111; 112; 119; 145.