Trials of Jesus


  • Jewish before Annas, the deposed high priest, the power behind the office. He was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the current high priest. This trial was held immediately after the arrest of Christ (John 18:12-24).
  • Jewish the trial before Caiaphas immediately followed the previous (Matthew 26:57-68; Mark 14:53-56; John 18:24-27).
  • Jewish trial before the Sanhedrin was held the following morning (Matthew 27:1-2; Mark 15:1; Luke 22:66-71) probably because of the legal necessity of conforming to Jewish law. Trials must be in daylight.
  • Civil trial was held before Pilate (Matthew 27:11-14; Mark 15:11-5; Luke 23:1-7; John 18:28-38).
  • Civil trial before Herod is recorded in only one gospel (Luke 23:8-12).
  • Civil trial before Pilate resulted in a second acquittal and the offer to scourge and release Jesus (Matthew 27:15-26; Mark 15:6-15; Luke 23:18-25; John 18:29-19.16).


There are many references. These are readily available.

Jesus Christ Our Lord, John F Walvoord, Moody Press, Chicago, 1969, 128-129.

The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Zondervan, 1983, “Matthew” by Louis A Barbieri (84), “Luke” by John Martin (261-262), and  “John” by Edwin Blum (355).