Summary of the Five Offerings in Leviticus 1-7
1. The burnt offering (Leviticus 1; 6.8-13) Voluntary, emphasizes the substitutionary death of an animal or bird in place of the person. Atonement (Leviticus 1.4), the sacrifice with the odor ascending to God. (Eph 5.2). Taught Reconciliation. Key statements: “When any man” Leviticus 1.2. “and he shall slay…” Leviticus 1.4. “offering is a burnt offering” Leviticus 1.3. “lay his hand on the head” Leviticus 1.4. “to make atonement on his behalf” Leviticus 1.4. “a burnt offering, an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the Lord.” Leviticus 1.9.
2. The grain offering (Leviticus 2; 6.14-23; 7.9-10) Voluntary, is a tribute to God for his covenant relationship with and care for Israel. Memorial (Leviticus 2.2), No leaven or honey (Leviticus 2.11), and add salt of the covenant (Leviticus 2.13). They are his people, a priest nation (Exodus 19.9), and to be holy (Leviticus 19.2). Taught Positional relationship with God. Key statements: “anyone presents a grain offering to the Lord” Leviticus 2.1. “fine flour…oil on it and put frankincense on it.” Leviticus 2.1. “And the priest shall offer it up in smoke as its memorial portion on the altar” Leviticus 2.2. “an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the Lord.” Leviticus 2.2. “Not…with leaven,…not….any leaven or any honey” Leviticus 2.11. “the salt of the covenant” Leviticus Leviticus2.13.
3. The peace offering (Leviticus 3; 7.11-36) Voluntary, emphasizes the peaceful or friendly alliance between God and Israel. Taught Fellowship with God with God. Key statements: “a sacrifice of peace offerings” Leviticus 3.1. “he shall lay his hand on the head…and slay it” Leviticus 3.2. “Aaron’s sons…shall sprinkle the blood” Leviticus 3.2. “he shall present an offering by fire to the Lord” Leviticus 3.3. “ Aaron’s sons shall offer it up in smoke on the altar on the burnt offering…a soothing aroma to the Lord” Leviticus 3.5. “sacrifice of thanksgiving” Leviticus 7.12. “votive or freewill offering” Leviticus 7.16.
4. The sin offering (Leviticus 4-5.13; 6.24-30) Mandatory, emphasizes offering because of unintentional sin or error, by individuals or the entire congregation of Israel, against a command of God. These were then sins not done in a spirit of rebellion against the Lord and His covenant stipulations—whether sins of ignorance (Leviticus 4), sins without conscious intent (Leviticus 5), or intentional but non-defiant sins (Numbers 15.22-29). Taught Confession of sin. Key statements: “If a person sins unintentionally” Leviticus4.2. “If the anointed priest sins” Leviticus 4.3. “then let him offer to the Lord a bull without defect as a sin offering for the sin he has committed.” Leviticus 4.3. “Now if the whole congregation of Israel commits error and the matter escapes the notice” Leviticus 4.13. “the assembly shall offer a bull of the herd for a sin offering” Leviticus 4.14. “When a leader sins and unintentionally does” Leviticus 4.22. “he shall bring for his offering a goat” Leviticus 4.23. “Now if anyone of the common people sins unintentionally” Leviticus 4.27. “He shall bring for his offering a goat, a female” Leviticus 4.28. “Now if a person sins” Leviticus 5.1. “Or if a person touches any unclean thing” Leviticus 5.2. “touches human uncleanness” Leviticus 5.3. “a person swears thoughtlessly” Leviticus 5.4. “he shall confess that: Leviticus 5.5. “He shall also bring his guilt offering to the Lord” Leviticus 5.6. “So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin.” Leviticus 5.6.
5. The guilt offering (Leviticus 5.14-6.7; 7.1-8) Mandatory, emphasizes sin by one unaware of the sin, or sin for which restitution can and must be paid. This offering seems to have been confined to offenses against God or man that could be estimated and so covered by compensation. The common occasion of the guilt offering was an offense that caused damage or loss whether unintentional or deliberate, and either against God or against man. Note that in Isaiah 53.10 wrote that the Messiah was to be a guilt offering. Taught Confession of sin. Key statements: “If a person acts unfaithfully and sins unintentionally against the Lord’s holy things” Leviticus 5.15. “he shall bring his guilt offering to the Lord” Leviticus 5.15. “And he shall make restitution for that” Leviticus 5.16. “ram of the guilt offering” Leviticus 5.16. “Now if a person sins…though he was unaware” Leviticus 5.17. “his error in which he sinned unintentionally and did not know” Leviticus 5.18. “it shall be forgiven him” Leviticus 5.18. “It is a guilt offering” Leviticus 5.19. “When a person sins and acts unfaithfully against the Lord, and deceives his companion” Leviticus 6.2. “lied…sworn falsely” Leviticus 6.3. “he shall restore what he took…” Leviticus 6.4. “he shall make restitution for it in full, and add to it one-fifth more” Leviticus 6.5. “guilt offering” Leviticus 6.6. “make atonement…he shall be forgiven” Leviticus 6.7.
- The burnt offering taught reconciliation.
- The grain offering taught positional relationship with God.
- The peace offering taught fellowship with God.
- The sin offering taught confession of sin.
- The guilt offering taught confession of sin.